Document Analysis of School District Policies on Advanced Programs, International Baccalaureate, and Dual Credit Programs in the United States

Sevket Ceyhun CETIN, Connor MOORE, Bonnie BOWMAN
3.871 705


The aim of the study was to investigate the similarities and differences among the school district policies on Advanced Placement, International Baccalaureate, and Dual Credit programs across the United States and how complicated the policies are for parents and students to read and comprehend. The study was designed as a document analysis in which a total of forty-two school districts were randomly selected across the nation, and their policies on these three advanced programs were used as the data source. Flesch-Kincaid readability test was employed to measure the readability of the each district policy based on the pattern of reading ease score guideline. In addition, implications for practice were given based on the findings of the study.


Advanced Placement, International Baccalaureate, Dual Credit, Readability, Document Analysis

Full Text:




Barnett, E., & Stamm, L. (2010). Dual Enrollment: A Strategy for Educational Advancement of all Students. Washington, DC: Blackboard Institute.

Bowen, G. A. (2009). Document analysis as a qualitative research method, Qualitative Research Journal, 27Charlotte Mecklenburg Schools. (2002). Concurrent Enrollment. Retrieved from http://www.cms.k12.

Charlotte Mecklenburg Schools. (2005). Honors Progam. Retrieved from Pages/Default.aspx

College Board. (2003). A Brief History of the Advanced Placement Program. Retrieved from .pdf

Creswell, J. W. (2007). Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choosing among Five Approaches, Sage. Doak, C. C., Doak, L. G., & Root, J. H. (1996). Teaching patients with low literacy skills. AJN The American Journal of Nursing, 96(12), 16M.

Dudley, D. A. (1958). The Advanced Placement Program. NASSP Bulletin, 42 (December), 1–5.

Erlandson, A. D., Harris, L. E., Skipper, L., B, and Allen, D. S. (1993). Doing Naturalistic Inquiry: A Guide to Methods. Sage Publications, Newbury Park, CA.

Geiser, S., Santelices, V., & California Univ, B. C. f. S. i. H. E. (2004). The Role of Advanced Placement and Honors Courses in College Admissions. Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.4.04: Center for Studies in Higher Education.

Hoffman, N., Vargas, J., & Santos, J. (2009). New directions for dual enrollment: Creating stronger pathways from high school through college. New Directions for Community Colleges, 43-58. doi: 1002/cc.354

Iatarola, P., Conger, D., & Long, M. C. (2011). Determinants of High Schools' Advanced Course Offerings. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 33(3), 340-359.

International Baccalaureate Organization. (2013). Retrieved from

Jackson, C. K. (2010). A Little Now for a Lot Later. Journal of Human Resources, 45(3), 591-639.

Karp, M. M., Bailey, T. R., Hughes, K. L., Fermin, B. J., & Office of Vocational and Adult Education, W. D. C. (2004). State Dual Enrollment Policies: Addressing Access and Quality: US Department of Education.

Kim, J., Kirby, C., Bragg, D. D., & Illinois Univ, C. O. o. C. C. R. a. L. (2004). Dual Credit: Then and Now. In Brief: Office of Community College Research and Leadership.

Lewin, T. (2010). International Program Catches on in U.S. Schools, The New York Times.

Mathews, J. (2005). How to Build a Better High School. Newsweek, 145(20), 52-57.

Merriam, S. B. (1988). Case Study Research in Education: A Qualitative Approach, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco.

Moore, G. W., & Slate, J. R. (2008). Who's Taking the Advanced Placement Courses and How Are They Doing: A Statewide Two-Year Study. High School Journal, 92(1), 56-67.

Polishchuk, D. L., Hashem, J., & Sabharwal, S. (2012). Readability of online patient education materials on adult reconstruction web sites. Journal of Arthroplasty, 27(5), 716-719.

Schneider, J. (2009). Privilege, equity, and the Advanced Placement Program: tug of war. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 41(6), 813-831. doi: 10.1080/00220270802713613

Yonezawa, S., Wells, A. S., & Serna, I. (2002). Choosing Tracks: "Freedom of Choice" in Detracking Schools. American Educational Research Journal, 39(1), 37-67.

Young, R. D., Joyner, S. A., & Slate, J. R. (2013). Grade Point Average Differences between Dual and Nondual Credit College Students. Urban Studies Research, 6.

Sakarya University Journal of Education | 2011 ISSN: 2146-7455